The district of Mustang (Nepal), also known as the Kingdom of Lo, now includes an area of 3565 m2 which is organized around the valley of Kali Gandaki, rare Himalayan river to flow from North to south. If the written history of the region begins in the eighth century with a mention in the Dunhang texts, the study of archaeological data shows us that the valley has a much older history.
In this paper we shall present the archaeological elements preliminary to the understanding of the history of Mustang. We shall begin by examining the possible presence of a funerary tradition in the south of the valley from the first millennium BC. We shall continue with a brief presentation of the work carried out by the Nepal German Project on High Mountain Archeology in the 90s which will allow us to establish some chronological and cultural bases for the second half of the 1st millennium BC.
Finally, we shall discuss a more recent history, from the 10th century to the 14th century, a period marked by significant architectural development and a more visible religious presence culminating in the establishment of the Lo dynasty in the early 15th century.