Around 1500 BC. BC, a cultural, economic and ideological rupture occurs in southern Central Asia, leading to the disappearance of the Civilization of the Oxus and to early Iron Age. One of the most impressive consequences is the radical transformation of the settlement pattern, small villages replacing the great proto-urban sites. While this period was only marginally studied until recently, current research by several teams in Turkmenistan (Ulug-depe site), Uzbekistan (Dzharkutan and Burgut-Kurgan sites) and Afghanistan (Bactres and Cheshme Shafa sites) allow today to renew our knowledge. Through the study of the architectural remains and ceramic assemblages associated with them, this presentation will draw up an overview of the dynamics of territorial occupation from the end of the Bronze Age to the Achaemenid period.